Taurine (2-aminoethanesulphonic acid), a sulphur-containing amino acid, is found in most mammalian tissues. Although it can be synthesized endogenously, the major source of taurine is from the diet. Taurine was found to exhibit diverse biological actions, including protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury, modulation of intracellular calcium concentration, and antioxidant, antiatherogenic and blood pressure-lowering effects. The present review will address the potential beneficial actions of taurine in congestive heart failure, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, atherosclerosis and diabetic cardiomyopathy. There is a wealth of experimental information and some clinical evidence available in the literature suggesting that taurine could be of benefit in cardiovascular disease of different etiologies. However, double-blind long-term clinical trials need to be conducted before taurine can be unequivocally recommended as a nutritional intervention for the prevention and/or treatment of cardiovascular disease.